Pipe Flow 2 Table of contents

Preface ReadOnline Pipe Flow 2 Table of contents

1 Introduction ReadOnline Pipe Flow 2 Table of contents
    1.1 Multi-phase flow assurance
        1.1.1 General
1.1.2 Nuclear reactor multi-phase models
1.1.3 Multi-phase flow in the petroleum industry
1.2 Two-phase flow 
1.2.1 Flow regimes in horizontal pipes
1.2.2 Slugging
1.2.3 Flow regimes in vertical pipes
1.2.4 Flow regime maps
1.2.5 Flow in concentric and eccentric annulus
   1.3 Three and four-phase flow 
1.3.1 Types of three-phase and quasi four-phase flow
1.3.2 Three-phase flow regimes
    1.4 Typical flow assurance tasks
1.5 Some definitions 

1.5.1 General
1.5.2 Volume fraction, holdup and water cut
1.5.3 Superficial velocity
1.5.4 Mixture velocity and density
1.5.5 Various sorts of pipes

2 Conservation equations
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Mass conservation
2.2.1 Comparing single-phase and multi-phase mass conservation
2.2.2 Mass conservation for well mixed phases
   2.3 Multi-phase momentum conservation
2.3.1 Main equations
2.3.2 Pressure differences between phases due to elevation differences
2.3.3 Summarizing the forces between phases
2.3.4 Comparing single- and multi-phase momentum conservation
2.4 Energy conservation
2.4.1 Comparing single-phase and multi-phase energy conservation
 2.5 Mass transfer between phases with equal pressures 
   2.6 Comments on the conservation equations
2.6.1 Averaging
2.6.2 Closure relationships

3 Two-Fluid Model
 3.1 Problem definition
3.2 Mass conservation
3.3 Momentum conservation
3.4 Gas and liquid pressure difference in stratified flow
3.5 Friction in stratified flow
3.6 Steady-state incompressible flow solution 

3.6.1 The model
3.6.2 Solution method
 3.7 Steady-state compressible flow solution
3.8 Fully transient simulation model
3.9 The drift-flux model
3.10 Ignoring inertia in the momentum equations
3.11 Incompressible transient model

4 Three-fluid model
4.1 General
4.2 Mass conservation
4.3 Momentum conservation
4.4 Energy equation
4.5 Fluid properties

5 Friction, deposition and entrainment
  5.1 Friction between gas core and liquid film 
5.1.1 General about friction
5.1.2 The friction model
5.1.3 The Darcy-Weisbach friction factor for the liquid film-gas interface
5.1.4 Friction between the liquid film and the wall
 5.2 Droplet gas friction and dynamic response time
5.3 Droplet liquid friction forces 

5.3.1 Introduction
5.3.2 Zaichik and Alipchenkov’s eddy-droplet interaction time model
5.3.3 Droplet-liquid film friction modeled as if the droplets were a continuum
   5.4 Droplet deposition
5.5 Liquid film entrainment
5.6 Droplet size 

5.6.1 Maximum stable droplet diameter due to average velocity difference
5.6.2 Maximum stable droplet diameter due to turbulence
5.6.3 Average droplet diameter

6 Solving the two-phase three-fluid equations
6.1 Steady-state incompressible isothermal flow
6.2 Comparing with measurements
6.3 Steady-state compressible flow
6.4 Transient three-fluid two-phase annular flow model

7 Gas-liquid slug flow
 7.1 Slug mechanisms
7.2 Empirical slug period correlations 

7.2.1 Slug frequency and slug length
7.2.2 Slug fractions
7.2.3 Taylor-bubble and slug bubble velocities
7.3 Slug train friction
7.4 Dynamic slug simulation

8 Including boiling and condensation
 8.1 Extending the three-fluid two-phase model
8.2 Mass conservation
8.3 Momentum conservation 

8.3.1 Main equations
8.3.2 Some comments on interface velocity
 8.4 Energy equation
8.5 Pressure equation
8.6 Mass transfer from liquid (film and droplets) to gas
8.7 Slip between gas and droplets in annular flow
8.8 Droplet deposition in annular flow 

8.8.1 The Wallis-correlation
8.8.2 The Oliemans, Pots, and Trope-correlation
8.8.3 The Ishii and Mishima-correlation
8.8.4 The Sawant, Ishii, and Mori-correlation
 8.9 Dispersed bubble flow
8.10 Slug flow

9 Improved slug flow modeling
 9.1 Introduction
9.2 Governing equations
9.3 Friction model
9.4 Slug bubble entrainment and release 

9.4.1 Slug bubble velocity
9.4.2 Bubbles entering and leaving the liquid slug
9.4.3 Film and slug front/tail velocities
 9.5 Model validity and results

10 Multi-phase flow heat exchange
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Classical, simplified mixture correlations 

10.3 Improved correlations for all flow regimes in horizontal two-phase  flow
10.4 Flow regime-dependent approximation for horizontal flow
10.5 Flow-regime dependent two-phase correlations for inclined pipes
10.6 Dispersed bubble flow
10.7 Stratified flow
10.8 Slug flow

11 Flow regime determination
 11.1 The Beggs & Brill flow regime map
11.2 The Taitel & Duckler horizontal flow model
11.3 Flow regimes in vertical flow 

11.3.1 Bubble to slug transition
11.3.2 Transition to dispersed-bubble flow
11.3.3 Slug to churn transition
11.3.4 Transition to annular flow
11.4 Flow regimes in inclined pipes 
11.4.1 Bubble to slug transition
11.4.2 Transition to dispersed-bubble flow
11.4.3 Intermittent to annular transition
11.4.4 Slug to churn transition
11.4.5 Downward inclination
  11.5 The minimum-slip flow regime criterion

12 Numerical solution methods
12.1 Some essentials about numerical methods 
12.1.1 Some problems with higher order methods
12.1.2 Using Taylor-expansion to approximate
12.1.3 Truncation error, order, stability, consistency, and convergence
12.1.4 Implicit integration methods
12.1.5 Combining explicit and implicit methods
 12.2 Some essentials about hyperbolic equations
12.3 Solving systems of hyperbolic equations 

12.3.1 Flux-vector splitting
12.3.2 Lax-Friedrich’s method
 12.4 Hyperbolic equations with source terms
12.5 Selecting discretization methods
12.6 Improved TR-BDF2 method
12.7 Semi-implicit methods
12.8 Newton-Rapson and Newton-Krylov iteration 

12.8.1 The problem with Newton-Rapson iteration for large systems
12.8.2 Creating the Jacobian with fewer function calls
12.8.3 Some problems with Newton-iteration
12.8.4 Avoiding the Jacobian using Newton-Krylov iteration

13 Two-phase liquid-liquid flow
  13.1 General
13.2 Emulsion viscosity
13.3 Phase inversion criteria
13.4 Stratified flow friction modeling
14 Two-phase liquid-solid flow 

14.1 General about liquid-solid flow
14.2 The building up of solids in the pipeline
14.3 Minimum transport velocity

15 Three-phase gas-liquid-liquid flow
 15.1 Introduction
15.2 Main equations
15.3 Three-layer stratified flow
15.4 Incompressible steady-state slug flow model
15.5 Combining the different flow regimes into a unified model

16 Three-phase gas-liquid-solid flow
   16.1 Introduction
16.2 Models and correlations

17 Fluid properties
  17.1 General
17.2 Equations of state
17.3 Other properties for equation closure 

17.3.1 Enthalpy
17.3.2 Internal energy
17.3.3 Entropy
17.3.4 Heat capacity
17.3.5 Joule-Thompson coefficient
17.3.6 Speed of sound
17.3.7 Viscosity and thermal conductivity
17.3.8 Interfacial surface tension

18 Deposits and pipe damage
  18.1 Introduction
18.2 Hydrates 

18.2.1 General
18.2.2 Hydrate blockage prevention
18.2.3 Hydrate formation rate prediction
 18.3 Waxes
18.4 Asphaltenes
18.5 Scales
18.6 Corrosion, erosion, and cavitation

18.6.1 General
18.6.2 Corrosion simulation models
 18.7 Heavy oil and emulsions

19 Various subjects
   19.1 Multi-phase flowmeters and flow estimators
19.2 Gas lift 

19.2.1 General
19.2.2 Oil & water-producing well with gas lift: Simulation example
19.3 Slug catchers

Suggested reading

ReferencesReadOnline Pipe Flow 2 Table of contents

Nomenclature